c# - How to get SHA256 certificate thumbprint? - Stack ...

Fake Bitcoins?

Is it technicaly possible that a talented programmer could create a fake bitcoin and actually spend it wothing the network?
submitted by Uberdriver_janis to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Syscoin Platform’s Great Reddit Scaling Bake-off Proposal

Syscoin Platform’s Great Reddit Scaling Bake-off Proposal

https://preview.redd.it/rqt2dldyg8e51.jpg?width=1044&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=777ae9d4fbbb54c3540682b72700fc4ba3de0a44
We are excited to participate and present Syscoin Platform's ideal characteristics and capabilities towards a well-rounded Reddit Community Points solution!
Our scaling solution for Reddit Community Points involves 2-way peg interoperability with Ethereum. This will provide a scalable token layer built specifically for speed and high volumes of simple value transfers at a very low cost, while providing sovereign ownership and onchain finality.
Token transfers scale by taking advantage of a globally sorting mempool that provides for probabilistically secure assumptions of “as good as settled”. The opportunity here for token receivers is to have an app-layer interactivity on the speed/security tradeoff (99.9999% assurance within 10 seconds). We call this Z-DAG, and it achieves high-throughput across a mesh network topology presently composed of about 2,000 geographically dispersed full-nodes. Similar to Bitcoin, however, these nodes are incentivized to run full-nodes for the benefit of network security, through a bonded validator scheme. These nodes do not participate in the consensus of transactions or block validation any differently than other nodes and therefore do not degrade the security model of Bitcoin’s validate first then trust, across every node. Each token transfer settles on-chain. The protocol follows Bitcoin core policies so it has adequate code coverage and protocol hardening to be qualified as production quality software. It shares a significant portion of Bitcoin’s own hashpower through merged-mining.
This platform as a whole can serve token microtransactions, larger settlements, and store-of-value in an ideal fashion, providing probabilistic scalability whilst remaining decentralized according to Bitcoin design. It is accessible to ERC-20 via a permissionless and trust-minimized bridge that works in both directions. The bridge and token platform are currently available on the Syscoin mainnet. This has been gaining recent attention for use by loyalty point programs and stablecoins such as Binance USD.

Solutions

Syscoin Foundation identified a few paths for Reddit to leverage this infrastructure, each with trade-offs. The first provides the most cost-savings and scaling benefits at some sacrifice of token autonomy. The second offers more preservation of autonomy with a more narrow scope of cost savings than the first option, but savings even so. The third introduces more complexity than the previous two yet provides the most overall benefits. We consider the third as most viable as it enables Reddit to benefit even while retaining existing smart contract functionality. We will focus on the third option, and include the first two for good measure.
  1. Distribution, burns and user-to-user transfers of Reddit Points are entirely carried out on the Syscoin network. This full-on approach to utilizing the Syscoin network provides the most scalability and transaction cost benefits of these scenarios. The tradeoff here is distribution and subscription handling likely migrating away from smart contracts into the application layer.
  2. The Reddit Community Points ecosystem can continue to use existing smart contracts as they are used today on the Ethereum mainchain. Users migrate a portion of their tokens to Syscoin, the scaling network, to gain much lower fees, scalability, and a proven base layer, without sacrificing sovereign ownership. They would use Syscoin for user-to-user transfers. Tips redeemable in ten seconds or less, a high-throughput relay network, and onchain settlement at a block target of 60 seconds.
  3. Integration between Matic Network and Syscoin Platform - similar to Syscoin’s current integration with Ethereum - will provide Reddit Community Points with EVM scalability (including the Memberships ERC777 operator) on the Matic side, and performant simple value transfers, robust decentralized security, and sovereign store-of-value on the Syscoin side. It’s “the best of both worlds”. The trade-off is more complex interoperability.

Syscoin + Matic Integration

Matic and Blockchain Foundry Inc, the public company formed by the founders of Syscoin, recently entered a partnership for joint research and business development initiatives. This is ideal for all parties as Matic Network and Syscoin Platform provide complementary utility. Syscoin offers characteristics for sovereign ownership and security based on Bitcoin’s time-tested model, and shares a significant portion of Bitcoin’s own hashpower. Syscoin’s focus is on secure and scalable simple value transfers, trust-minimized interoperability, and opt-in regulatory compliance for tokenized assets rather than scalability for smart contract execution. On the other hand, Matic Network can provide scalable EVM for smart contract execution. Reddit Community Points can benefit from both.
Syscoin + Matic integration is actively being explored by both teams, as it is helpful to Reddit, Ethereum, and the industry as a whole.

Proving Performance & Cost Savings

Our POC focuses on 100,000 on-chain settlements of token transfers on the Syscoin Core blockchain. Transfers and burns perform equally with Syscoin. For POCs related to smart contracts (subscriptions, etc), refer to the Matic Network proposal.
On-chain settlement of 100k transactions was accomplished within roughly twelve minutes, well-exceeding Reddit’s expectation of five days. This was performed using six full-nodes operating on compute-optimized AWS c4.2xlarge instances which were geographically distributed (Virginia, London, Sao Paulo Brazil, Oregon, Singapore, Germany). A higher quantity of settlements could be reached within the same time-frame with more broadcasting nodes involved, or using hosts with more resources for faster execution of the process.
Addresses used: 100,014
The demonstration was executed using this tool. The results can be seen in the following blocks:
612722: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/6d47796d043bb4c508d29123e6ae81b051f5e0aaef849f253c8f3a6942a022ce
612723: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/8e2077f743461b90f80b4bef502f564933a8e04de97972901f3d65cfadcf1faf
612724: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/205436d25b1b499fce44c29567c5c807beaca915b83cc9f3c35b0d76dbb11f6e
612725: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/776d1b1a0f90f655a6bbdf559ff5072459cbdc5682d7615ff4b78c00babdc237
612726: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/de4df0994253742a1ac8ac9eec8d2a8c8b0a6d72c53d6f3caa29bb6c171b0a6b
612727: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/e5e167c52a9decb313fbaadf49a5e34cb490f8084f642a850385476d4ef10d70
612728: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/ab64d989edc71890e7b5b8491c20e9a27520dc45a5f7c776d3dae79057f59fe7
612729: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/5e8b7ecd0e36f99d07e4ea6e135fc952bf7ec30164ab6f4d1e98b0f2d405df6d
612730: https://sys1.bcfn.ca/block/d395df3d31dde60bbb0bece6bd5b358297da878f0beb96be389e5f0e043580a3
It is important to note that this POC is not focused on Z-DAG. The performance of Z-DAG has been benchmarked within realistic network conditions: Whiteblock’s audit is publicly available. Network latency tests showed an average TPS around 15k with burst capacity up to 61k. Zero-latency control group exhibited ~150k TPS. Mainnet testing of the Z-DAG network is achievable and will require further coordination and additional resources.
Even further optimizations are expected in the upcoming Syscoin Core release which will implement a UTXO model for our token layer bringing further efficiency as well as open the door to additional scaling technology currently under research by our team and academic partners. At present our token layer is account-based, similar to Ethereum. Opt-in compliance structures will also be introduced soon which will offer some positive performance characteristics as well. It makes the most sense to implement these optimizations before performing another benchmark for Z-DAG, especially on the mainnet considering the resources required to stress-test this network.

Cost Savings

Total cost for these 100k transactions: $0.63 USD
See the live fee comparison for savings estimation between transactions on Ethereum and Syscoin. Below is a snapshot at time of writing:
ETH price: $318.55 ETH gas price: 55.00 Gwei ($0.37)
Syscoin price: $0.11
Snapshot of live fee comparison chart
Z-DAG provides a more efficient fee-market. A typical Z-DAG transaction costs 0.0000582 SYS. Tokens can be safely redeemed/re-spent within seconds or allowed to settle on-chain beforehand. The costs should remain about this low for microtransactions.
Syscoin will achieve further reduction of fees and even greater scalability with offchain payment channels for assets, with Z-DAG as a resilience fallback. New payment channel technology is one of the topics under research by the Syscoin development team with our academic partners at TU Delft. In line with the calculation in the Lightning Networks white paper, payment channels using assets with Syscoin Core will bring theoretical capacity for each person on Earth (7.8 billion) to have five on-chain transactions per year, per person, without requiring anyone to enter a fee market (aka “wait for a block”). This exceeds the minimum LN expectation of two transactions per person, per year; one to exist on-chain and one to settle aggregated value.

Tools, Infrastructure & Documentation

Syscoin Bridge

Mainnet Demonstration of Syscoin Bridge with the Basic Attention Token ERC-20
A two-way blockchain interoperability system that uses Simple Payment Verification to enable:
  • Any Standard ERC-20 token to be moved from Ethereum to the Syscoin blockchain as a Syscoin Platform Token (SPT), and back to Ethereum
  • Any SPT to be moved from Syscoin to the Ethereum blockchain as an ERC-20 token, and back to Syscoin

Benefits

  • Permissionless
  • No counterparties involved
  • No trading mechanisms involved
  • No third-party liquidity providers required
  • Cross-chain Fractional Supply - 2-way peg - Token supply maintained globally
  • ERC-20s gain vastly improved transactionality with the Syscoin Token Platform, along with the security of bitcoin-core-compliant PoW.
  • SPTs gain access to all the tooling, applications and capabilities of Ethereum for ERC-20, including smart contracts.
https://preview.redd.it/l8t2m8ldh8e51.png?width=1180&format=png&auto=webp&s=b0a955a0181746dc79aff718bd0bf607d3c3aa23
https://preview.redd.it/26htnxzfh8e51.png?width=1180&format=png&auto=webp&s=d0383d3c2ee836c9f60b57eca35542e9545f741d

Source code

https://github.com/syscoin/?q=sysethereum
Main Subprojects

API

Tools to simplify using Syscoin Bridge as a service with dapps and wallets will be released some time after implementation of Syscoin Core 4.2. These will be based upon the same processes which are automated in the current live Sysethereum Dapp that is functioning with the Syscoin mainnet.

Documentation

Syscoin Bridge & How it Works (description and process flow)
Superblock Validation Battles
HOWTO: Provision the Bridge for your ERC-20
HOWTO: Setup an Agent
Developer & User Diligence

Trade-off

The Syscoin Ethereum Bridge is secured by Agent nodes participating in a decentralized and incentivized model that involves roles of Superblock challengers and submitters. This model is open to participation. The benefits here are trust-minimization, permissionless-ness, and potentially less legal/regulatory red-tape than interop mechanisms that involve liquidity providers and/or trading mechanisms.
The trade-off is that due to the decentralized nature there are cross-chain settlement times of one hour to cross from Ethereum to Syscoin, and three hours to cross from Syscoin to Ethereum. We are exploring ways to reduce this time while maintaining decentralization via zkp. Even so, an “instant bridge” experience could be provided by means of a third-party liquidity mechanism. That option exists but is not required for bridge functionality today. Typically bridges are used with batch value, not with high frequencies of smaller values, and generally it is advantageous to keep some value on both chains for maximum availability of utility. Even so, the cross-chain settlement time is good to mention here.

Cost

Ethereum -> Syscoin: Matic or Ethereum transaction fee for bridge contract interaction, negligible Syscoin transaction fee for minting tokens
Syscoin -> Ethereum: Negligible Syscoin transaction fee for burning tokens, 0.01% transaction fee paid to Bridge Agent in the form of the ERC-20, Matic or Ethereum transaction fee for contract interaction.

Z-DAG

Zero-Confirmation Directed Acyclic Graph is an instant settlement protocol that is used as a complementary system to proof-of-work (PoW) in the confirmation of Syscoin service transactions. In essence, a Z-DAG is simply a directed acyclic graph (DAG) where validating nodes verify the sequential ordering of transactions that are received in their memory pools. Z-DAG is used by the validating nodes across the network to ensure that there is absolute consensus on the ordering of transactions and no balances are overflowed (no double-spends).

Benefits

  • Unique fee-market that is more efficient for microtransaction redemption and settlement
  • Uses decentralized means to enable tokens with value transfer scalability that is comparable or exceeds that of credit card networks
  • Provides high throughput and secure fulfillment even if blocks are full
  • Probabilistic and interactive
  • 99.9999% security assurance within 10 seconds
  • Can serve payment channels as a resilience fallback that is faster and lower-cost than falling-back directly to a blockchain
  • Each Z-DAG transaction also settles onchain through Syscoin Core at 60-second block target using SHA-256 Proof of Work consensus
https://preview.redd.it/pgbx84jih8e51.png?width=1614&format=png&auto=webp&s=5f631d42a33dc698365eb8dd184b6d442def6640

Source code

https://github.com/syscoin/syscoin

API

Syscoin-js provides tooling for all Syscoin Core RPCs including interactivity with Z-DAG.

Documentation

Z-DAG White Paper
Useful read: An in-depth Z-DAG discussion between Syscoin Core developer Jag Sidhu and Brave Software Research Engineer Gonçalo Pestana

Trade-off

Z-DAG enables the ideal speed/security tradeoff to be determined per use-case in the application layer. It minimizes the sacrifice required to accept and redeem fast transfers/payments while providing more-than-ample security for microtransactions. This is supported on the premise that a Reddit user receiving points does need security yet generally doesn’t want nor need to wait for the same level of security as a nation-state settling an international trade debt. In any case, each Z-DAG transaction settles onchain at a block target of 60 seconds.

Syscoin Specs

Syscoin 3.0 White Paper
(4.0 white paper is pending. For improved scalability and less blockchain bloat, some features of v3 no longer exist in current v4: Specifically Marketplace Offers, Aliases, Escrow, Certificates, Pruning, Encrypted Messaging)
  • 16MB block bandwidth per minute assuming segwit witness carrying transactions, and transactions ~200 bytes on average
  • SHA256 merge mined with Bitcoin
  • UTXO asset layer, with base Syscoin layer sharing identical security policies as Bitcoin Core
  • Z-DAG on asset layer, bridge to Ethereum on asset layer
  • On-chain scaling with prospect of enabling enterprise grade reliable trustless payment processing with on/offchain hybrid solution
  • Focus only on Simple Value Transfers. MVP of blockchain consensus footprint is balances and ownership of them. Everything else can reduce data availability in exchange for scale (Ethereum 2.0 model). We leave that to other designs, we focus on transfers.
  • Future integrations of MAST/Taproot to get more complex value transfers without trading off trustlessness or decentralization.
  • Zero-knowledge Proofs are a cryptographic new frontier. We are dabbling here to generalize the concept of bridging and also verify the state of a chain efficiently. We also apply it in our Digital Identity projects at Blockchain Foundry (a publicly traded company which develops Syscoin softwares for clients). We are also looking to integrate privacy preserving payment channels for off-chain payments through zkSNARK hub & spoke design which does not suffer from the HTLC attack vectors evident on LN. Much of the issues plaguing Lightning Network can be resolved using a zkSNARK design whilst also providing the ability to do a multi-asset payment channel system. Currently we found a showstopper attack (American Call Option) on LN if we were to use multiple-assets. This would not exist in a system such as this.

Wallets

Web3 and mobile wallets are under active development by Blockchain Foundry Inc as WebAssembly applications and expected for release not long after mainnet deployment of Syscoin Core 4.2. Both of these will be multi-coin wallets that support Syscoin, SPTs, Ethereum, and ERC-20 tokens. The Web3 wallet will provide functionality similar to Metamask.
Syscoin Platform and tokens are already integrated with Blockbook. Custom hardware wallet support currently exists via ElectrumSys. First-class HW wallet integration through apps such as Ledger Live will exist after 4.2.
Current supported wallets
Syscoin Spark Desktop
Syscoin-Qt

Explorers

Mainnet: https://sys1.bcfn.ca (Blockbook)
Testnet: https://explorer-testnet.blockchainfoundry.co

Thank you for close consideration of our proposal. We look forward to feedback, and to working with the Reddit community to implement an ideal solution using Syscoin Platform!

submitted by sidhujag to ethereum [link] [comments]

Bitcoin’s Security and Hash Rate Explained

Bitcoin’s Security and Hash Rate Explained
As the Bitcoin hash rate reaches new all-time highs, there’s never been a better time to discuss blockchain security and its relation to the hashing power and the Proof of Work (PoW) that feed the network. The Bitcoin system is based on a form of decentralized trust, heavily relying on cryptography. This makes its blockchain highly secure and able to be used for financial transactions and other operations requiring a trustless ledger.
Far from popular belief, cryptography dates back to thousands of years ago. The same root of the word encryption — crypt — comes from the Greek word ‘kryptos’, meaning hidden or secret. Indeed, humans have always wanted to keep some information private. The Assyrians, the Chinese, the Romans, and the Greeks, they all tried over the centuries to conceal some information like trade deals or manufacturing secrets by using symbols or ciphers carved in stone or leather. In 1900 BC, Egyptians used hieroglyphics and experts often refer to them as the first example of cryptography.
Back to our days, Bitcoin uses cryptographic technologies such as:
  1. Cryptographic hash functions (i.e. SHA-256 and RIPEMD-160)
  2. Public Key Cryptography (i.e. ECDSA — the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm)
While Public Key Cryptography, bitcoin addresses, and digital signatures are used to provide ownership of bitcoins, the SHA-256 hash function is used to verify data and block integrity and to establish the chronological order of the blockchain. A cryptographic hash function is a mathematical function that verifies the integrity of data by transforming it into a unique unidentifiable code.
Here is a graphic example to make things more clear:

– Extract from the MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) in Digital Currencies at the University of Nicosia.
Furthermore, hash functions are used as part of the PoW algorithm, which is a prominent part of the Bitcoin mining algorithm and this is what is of more interest to understand the security of the network. Mining creates new bitcoins in each block, almost like a central bank printing new money and creates trust by ensuring that transactions are confirmed only when enough computational power is devoted to the block that contains them. More blocks mean more computation, which means more trust.
With PoW, miners compete against each other to complete transactions on the network and get rewarded. Basically they need to solve a complicated mathematical puzzle and a possibility to easily prove the solution. The more hashing power, the higher the chance to resolve the puzzle and therefore perform the proof of work. In more simple words, bitcoins exist thanks to a peer to peer network that helps validate transactions in the ledger and provides enough trust to avoid that a third party is involved in the process. It also exists because miners give it life by resolving that computational puzzle, through the mining reward incentive they are receiving.
For more info, contact Block.co directly or email at [email protected].
Tel +357 70007828
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submitted by BlockDotCo to u/BlockDotCo [link] [comments]

Tron v9.7.0 (2016-10-27) // Add CryptNet SSL cache clear; Add auto desktop screenshot capture; Remove filesys and reg reset jobs; Improve OneDrive detection; Fix pre-run system state capture hang

Background

Tron is a script that "fights for the User." Think of it as a "tech-on-a-thumb-drive" that automates the majority of tedious work in cleaning a Windows system.
The goal is ~85% automation, with the understanding that some things are always better left to the discretion of the tech. It is built with heavy reliance on community input and updated regularly.
Bug reports, critiques and suggestions are welcome (see how NOT to report bugs). If you have issues with this release, post a top-level comment and myself or one of the mods will answer, typically in <24 hours.

Sequence of operation

Prep > Tempclean > De-bloat > Disinfect > Repair > Patch > Optimize > Wrap-up | (Manual tools)
Saves a log to C:\Logs\tron\tron.log (configurable).
screenshots of Tron in action

Changelog

(significant changes in bold; full changelog on Github)
v9.7.0 (2016-10-27)
tron.bat
  • - Remove Filesystem Reset and Registry Reset jobs from Tron. They're rarely required and seem to hang the script on a lot of systems, so in the interest of stability they've been given the axe
  • - Remove -sfr and -srr switches along with all associated code and text due to removal of those jobs from Tron
  • - Temporarily disable use of the -udl switch, until I can find a better solution for submitting log files
Stage 0: Prep
  • + Add job to capture desktop screenshot to the RAW_LOGS folder. Sometimes a visual of the system is helpful so we capture one just in case some icons change
  • ! Prefix siv32x and siv64x commands with start instead of calling directly. Should prevent entire script stalling if SIV hangs. Thanks to gameoftomes
  • * Enable executing siv64x.exe instead of siv32x.exe on 64-bit systems. Thanks to gameoftomes
Stage 2: De-bloat
  • * Significantly improve robustness of OneDrive checks. OneDrive now only removed if system is Win10, folder exists in default location, and is empty. Thanks to ranger_dood
Stage 3: Disinfect
Stage 4: Repair
  • - Remove job Reset Filesystem permissions and associated files and code
  • - Remove job Reset Registry permission and associated files and code
Stage 5: Patch
  • * Update 7-Zip binaries to v17.04
  • * Update Adobe Flash binaries to v23.0.0.205
  • * Update Java Runtime Environment binaries to 8u112

Download

  1. Primary method: Download a self-extracting .exe pack from one of the mirrors:
    Mirror HTTPS HTTP Location Host
    Official link link US-TX SGC-Hosting
    #1 link link US-NY danodemano
    #2 link link US-GA TheCronus89
    #3 link link DE bodkov
    #4 link link NZ iDanoo
    #5 link link FR mxmod
    #6 --- link US-TX RB14060 (XygenHosting)
    #7 link link Cloudflare TheSqrtMinus1
    #8 --- link FR Falkerz
    #9 link --- US-MI ajcutshall
    #10 --- link UK nickuk (ClanPlanet)
    #11 link --- AU agent-squirrel
  2. Secondary: Use Resilio Sync (formerly "BT Sync") to sync to the repo. You'll receive updates and patches immediately as I push them. After installing, use the applicable read-only key to connect to the respective repo:
    Release: BYQYYECDOJPXYA2ZNUDWDN34O2GJHBM47 Dev: BDCF7MUDXNIDEK2KQ6DHV5ALIGIWD257O 
  3. Tertiary: Connect to the SyncThing repo (instructions) to get fixes/updates immediately. This method has some risks and you should only use it if you know about them.
  4. Quaternary: Source code
    All the code for Tron is available on Github (Note: this doesn't include many of the utilities Tron relies on to function). If you want to view the code without downloading a ~500MB package, Github is a good place to do it.

Command-Line Support

Tron has full command-line support. All flags are optional, can be used simultaneously, and override their respective script default when used.
Usage: tron.bat [-a -c -d -dev -e -er -m -o -p -r -sa -sdb -sd -sdc -sdu -se -sfr -sk -sm -sp -spr -srr -ss -str -sw -udl -v -x] | [-h] Optional flags (can be combined): -a Automatic mode (no welcome screen or prompts; implies -e) -c Config dump (display current config. Can be used with other flags to see what WOULD happen, but script will never execute if this flag is used) -d Dry run (run through script without executing any jobs) -dev Override OS detection (allow running on unsupported Windows versions) -e Accept EULA (suppress display of disclaimer warning screen) -er Email a report when finished. Requires you to configure SwithMailSettings.xml -m Preserve OEM Metro apps (don't remove them) -np Skip the pause at the end of the script -o Power off after running (overrides -r) -p Preserve power settings (don't reset power settings to default) -r Reboot automatically (auto-reboot 30 seconds after completion) -sa Skip anti-virus scans (MBAM, KVRT, Sophos) -sdb Skip de-bloat (OEM bloatware removal; implies -m) -sd Skip defrag (force Tron to ALWAYS skip Stage 5 defrag) -sdc Skip DISM component (SxS store) cleanup -sdu Skip debloat update. Prevent Tron from auto-updating the S2 debloat lists -se Skip Event Log clearing -sfr Skip filesystem permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -sk Skip Kaspersky Virus Rescue Tool (KVRT) scan -sm Skip Malwarebytes Anti-Malware (MBAM) installation -sp Skip patches (do not patch 7-Zip, Java Runtime, Adobe Flash or Reader) -spr Skip page file settings reset (don't set to "Let Windows manage the page file") -srr Skip registry permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -ss Skip Sophos Anti-Virus (SAV) scan -str Skip Telemetry Removal (don't remove Windows user tracking, Win7 and up only) -sw Skip Windows Updates (do not attempt to run Windows Update) -udl Upload debug logs. Send tron.log and the system GUID dump to the Tron developer -v Verbose. Show as much output as possible. NOTE: Significantly slower! -x Self-destruct. Tron deletes itself after running and leaves logs intact Misc flags (must be used alone): -h Display this help text 

Integrity

\tron\integrity_verification\checksums.txt contains SHA-256 checksums for every file and is signed with my PGP key (0x07d1490f82a211a2; included). You can use this to verify package integrity.
Donations (bitcoin): 16dxc4hgzuXYSKGbLuEVxXQCM8dW59ZSCe
"Do not withhold good from those to whom it is due, when it is in your power to act." -p3:27
submitted by vocatus to TronScript [link] [comments]

Tron v9.4.1 (2016-09-08) AQ // Fix critical bug in S2 update checker; implement SSL on all update checks; update KVRT

Background

Tron is a script that "fights for the User." Think of it as a "tech-on-a-thumb-drive" that automates the majority of tedious work in cleaning a Windows system.
The goal is ~85% automation, with the understanding that some things are always better left to the discretion of the tech. It is built with heavy reliance on community input and updated regularly.
Bug reports, critiques and suggestions are welcome (see how NOT to report bugs). If you have issues with this release, post a top-level comment and myself or one of the mods will answer, typically in <24 hours.

Sequence of operation

Prep > Tempclean > De-bloat > Disinfect > Repair > Patch > Optimize > Wrap-up | (Manual tools)
Saves a log to C:\Logs\tron\tron.log (configurable).
screenshots of Tron in action

Changelog

(significant changes in bold; full changelog on Github)
v9.4.1 (2016-09-08) AQ
  • AQ = Released from Antarctica
tron.bat
  • . No changes to tron.bat; increment version number only
check_update.bat
  • - Remove --ca-certificate=stage_0_prep\check_update\bmrf.org.pem declarative from wget calls, due to upgrading Tron's internal wget version to v1.18
check_update_debloat_lists.bat
  • - Remove --no-check-certificate statement from wget commands, due to upgrade of Tron's internal wget.exe to v1.18. This enables proper SSL encryption when checking Github for new S2 debloat lists
  • ! Remove erroneous debugging statement that was mistakenly left in. It flagged the local 3rd party Metro list as being out of date regardless of version
  • + Add preloading of variables so the script doesn't crash if it can't detect a version number correctly. Thanks to Karmaisthedevil
Stage 0: Prep

Download

  1. Primary method: Download a self-extracting .exe pack from one of the mirrors:
    Mirror HTTPS HTTP Location Host
    Official link link US-TX SGC-Hosting
    #1 link link US-NY danodemano
    #2 link link US-GA TheCronus89
    #3 link link DE bodkov
    #4 link link NZ iDanoo
    #5 link link FR mxmod
    #6 --- link US-TX RB14060 (XygenHosting)
    #7 link link Cloudflare TheSqrtMinus1
    #8 --- link FR Falkerz
    #9 link --- US-MI ajcutshall
    #10 --- link UK nickuk (ClanPlanet)
    #11 link --- AU agent-squirrel
  2. Secondary: The BT Sync key is no longer published because it was having issues with large swarms (failed to replicate reliably). You can get the key from an old thread or just download from one of the static pack mirrors instead.
  3. Tertiary: Connect to the SyncThing repo (instructions) to get fixes/updates immediately. This method has some risks and you should only use it if you know about them.
  4. Quaternary: Source code
    All the code for Tron is available here on Github (Note: this doesn't include many of the utilities Tron relies on to function). If you want to view the code without downloading a ~500MB package, or want to contribute to the project, Github is a good place to do it.

Command-Line Support

Tron has full command-line support. All flags are optional, can be used simultaneously, and override their respective script default when used.
Usage: tron.bat [-a -c -d -dev -e -er -m -o -p -r -sa -sdb -sd -sdc -sdu -se -sfr -sk -sm -sp -spr -srr -ss -str -sw -v -x] | [-h] Optional flags (can be combined): -a Automatic mode (no welcome screen or prompts; implies -e) -c Config dump (display current config. Can be used with other flags to see what WOULD happen, but script will never execute if this flag is used) -d Dry run (run through script without executing any jobs) -dev Override OS detection (allow running on unsupported Windows versions) -e Accept EULA (suppress display of disclaimer warning screen) -er Email a report when finished. Requires you to configure SwithMailSettings.xml -m Preserve OEM Metro apps (don't remove them) -np Skip the pause at the end of the script -o Power off after running (overrides -r) -p Preserve power settings (don't reset power settings to default) -r Reboot automatically (auto-reboot 30 seconds after completion) -sa Skip anti-virus scans (MBAM, KVRT, Sophos) -sdb Skip de-bloat (OEM bloatware removal; implies -m) -sd Skip defrag (force Tron to ALWAYS skip Stage 5 defrag) -sdc Skip DISM component (SxS store) cleanup -sdu Skip debloat update. Prevent Tron from auto-updating the S2 debloat lists -se Skip Event Log clearing -sfr Skip filesystem permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -sk Skip Kaspersky Virus Rescue Tool (KVRT) scan -sm Skip Malwarebytes Anti-Malware (MBAM) installation -sp Skip patches (do not patch 7-Zip, Java Runtime, Adobe Flash or Reader) -spr Skip page file settings reset (don't set to "Let Windows manage the page file") -srr Skip registry permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -ss Skip Sophos Anti-Virus (SAV) scan -str Skip Telemetry Removal (don't remove Windows user tracking, Win7 and up only) -sw Skip Windows Updates (do not attempt to run Windows Update) -v Verbose. Show as much output as possible. NOTE: Significantly slower! -x Self-destruct. Tron deletes itself after running and leaves logs intact Misc flags (must be used alone): -h Display this help text 

Integrity

\tron\integrity_verification\checksums.txt contains SHA-256 checksums for every file and is signed with my PGP key (0x07d1490f82a211a2; included). You can use this to verify package integrity.
Donations (bitcoin): 16dxc4hgzuXYSKGbLuEVxXQCM8dW59ZSCe
"Do not withhold good from those to whom it is due, when it is in your power to act." -p3:27
submitted by vocatus to TronScript [link] [comments]

Tron v9.2.0 (2016-08-12) AQ // Implement proper SSL encryption on update checker; Add automatic GUID dumping; Automatically apply w10 Anti-Beacon immunizations

Background

Tron is a script that "fights for the User." Think of it as a "tech-on-a-thumb-drive" that automates the majority of tedious work in cleaning a Windows system.
The goal is ~85% automation, with the understanding that some things are always better left to the discretion of the tech. It is built with heavy reliance on community input and updated regularly.
Bug reports, critiques and suggestions are welcome (see how NOT to report bugs). If you have issues with this release, post a top-level comment and myself or one of the mods will answer, typically in <24 hours.
screenshots here

Sequence of operation

Prep > Tempclean > De-bloat > Disinfect > Repair > Patch > Optimize > Wrap-up | (Manual tools)
Saves a log to C:\Logs\tron\tron.log (configurable).

Changelog

(significant changes in bold; full changelog on Github)
v9.2.0 (2016-08-12) AQ
  • AQ = Released from Antarctica
tron.bat
  • / tron:prep: Remove www from the URL in the REPO_URL variable. This is related to fixing SSL encryption on the update checker
update_check.bat
  • ! Implement proper SSL encryption on the update check and auto-download mechanisms. Previously we were skipping certificate checking due to cert errors. We now properly establish a valid SSL connection to the repo
Stage 0: Prep
  • + Add automatic dumping of all GUIDs to the RAW_LOGS folder. This way users will always have the GUID's of the system as they existed before Tron ran. Should make it easier to submit the lists for review
Stage 3: Disinfect
  • * Update Sophos and MBAM definitions to latest
Stage 4: Repair
  • + Integrate Spybot Anti-Beacon directly into Windows 10 telemetry purge script. Tron now automatically applies all Spybot Anti-Beacon immunizations on Windows 10 systems
Stage 6: Optimize
  • * Update smartctl.exe to v6.5.0.4318 2016-05-07 r4318. smartctl.exe This improves Tron's ability to detect SSD's and potentially failing disks
  • * Update smartctl.exe's supporting drive database (drivedb.h) to 2016-05-06 20:12:45Z

Download

  1. Primary method: Download a self-extracting .exe pack from one of the mirrors:
    Mirror HTTPS HTTP Location Host
    Official link link US-TX SGC-Hosting
    #1 link link US-NY danodemano
    #2 link link US-GA TheCronus89
    #3 link link DE bodkov
    #4 link link NZ iDanoo
    #5 link link FR mxmod
    #6 --- link US-TX RB14060 (XygenHosting)
    #7 link link Cloudflare TheSqrtMinus1
    #8 --- link FR Falkerz
    #9 link --- US-MI ajcutshall
    #10 --- link UK nickuk (ClanPlanet)
  2. Secondary: The BT Sync key is no longer published because it was having issues with large swarms (failed to replicate reliably). You can get the key from an old thread or just download from one of the static pack mirrors instead.
  3. Tertiary: Connect to the SyncThing repo (instructions) to get fixes/updates immediately. This method has some risks and you should only use it if you know about them.
  4. Quaternary: Source code
    All the code for Tron is available here on Github (Note: this doesn't include many of the utilities Tron relies on to function). If you want to view the code without downloading a ~500MB package, or want to contribute to the project, Github is a good place to do it.

Command-Line Support

Tron has full command-line support. All flags are optional, can be used simultaneously, and override their respective script default when used.
Usage: tron.bat [-a -c -d -dev -e -er -m -o -p -r -sa -sdb -sd -sdc -se -sfr -sk -sm -sp -spr -srr -ss -str -sw -v -x] | [-h] Optional flags (can be combined): -a Automatic mode (no welcome screen or prompts; implies -e) -c Config dump (display current config. Can be used with other flags to see what WOULD happen, but script will never execute if this flag is used) -d Dry run (run through script without executing any jobs) -dev Override OS detection (allow running on unsupported Windows versions) -e Accept EULA (suppress display of disclaimer warning screen) -er Email a report when finished. Requires you to configure SwithMailSettings.xml -m Preserve OEM Metro apps (don't remove them) -np Skip the pause at the end of the script -o Power off after running (overrides -r) -p Preserve power settings (don't reset power settings to default) -r Reboot automatically (auto-reboot 30 seconds after completion) -sa Skip anti-virus scans (MBAM, KVRT, Sophos) -sdb Skip de-bloat (OEM bloatware removal; implies -m) -sd Skip defrag (force Tron to ALWAYS skip Stage 5 defrag) -sdc Skip DISM component (SxS store) cleanup -se Skip Event Log clearing -sfr Skip filesystem permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -sk Skip Kaspersky Virus Rescue Tool (KVRT) scan -sm Skip Malwarebytes Anti-Malware (MBAM) installation -sp Skip patches (do not patch 7-Zip, Java Runtime, Adobe Flash or Reader) -spr Skip page file settings reset (don't set to "Let Windows manage the page file") -srr Skip registry permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -ss Skip Sophos Anti-Virus (SAV) scan -str Skip Telemetry Removal (don't remove Windows user tracking, Win7 and up only) -sw Skip Windows Updates (do not attempt to run Windows Update) -v Verbose. Show as much output as possible. NOTE: Significantly slower! -x Self-destruct. Tron deletes itself after running and leaves logs intact Misc flags (must be used alone): -h Display this help text 

Integrity

\tron\integrity_verification\checksums.txt contains SHA-256 checksums for every file and is signed with my PGP key (0x07d1490f82a211a2; included). You can use this to verify package integrity.
Donations (bitcoin): 16dxc4hgzuXYSKGbLuEVxXQCM8dW59ZSCe
"Do not withhold good from those to whom it is due, when it is in your power to act." -p3:27
submitted by vocatus to TronScript [link] [comments]

Tron v9.2.0 is out // Implement proper SSL encryption on update checker; automatic GUID dumping and auto-apply w10 Anti-Beacon immunizations

[x-post /TronScript]

Background

Tron is a script that "fights for the User." Think of it as a "tech-on-a-thumb-drive" that automates the majority of tedious work in cleaning a Windows system.
The goal is ~85% automation, with the understanding that some things are always better left to the discretion of the tech. It is built with heavy reliance on community input and updated regularly.
Bug reports, critiques and suggestions are welcome (see how NOT to report bugs). If you have issues with this release, post a top-level comment and myself or one of the mods will answer, typically in <24 hours.
screenshots here

Sequence of operation

Prep > Tempclean > De-bloat > Disinfect > Repair > Patch > Optimize > Wrap-up | (Manual tools)
Saves a log to C:\Logs\tron\tron.log (configurable).

Changelog

(significant changes in bold; full changelog on Github)
v9.2.0 (2016-08-12) AQ
  • AQ = Released from Antarctica
tron.bat
  • / tron:prep: Remove www from the URL in the REPO_URL variable. This is related to fixing SSL encryption on the update checker
update_check.bat
  • ! Implement proper SSL encryption on the update check and auto-download mechanisms. Previously we were skipping certificate checking due to cert errors. We now properly establish a valid SSL connection to the repo
Stage 0: Prep
  • + Add automatic dumping of all GUIDs to the RAW_LOGS folder. This way users will always have the GUID's of the system as they existed before Tron ran. Should make it easier to submit the lists for review
Stage 3: Disinfect
  • * Update Sophos and MBAM definitions to latest
Stage 4: Repair
  • + Integrate Spybot Anti-Beacon directly into Windows 10 telemetry purge script. Tron now automatically applies all Spybot Anti-Beacon immunizations on Windows 10 systems
Stage 6: Optimize
  • * Update smartctl.exe to v6.5.0.4318 2016-05-07 r4318. smartctl.exe This improves Tron's ability to detect SSD's and potentially failing disks
  • * Update smartctl.exe's supporting drive database (drivedb.h) to 2016-05-06 20:12:45Z

Download

  1. Primary method: Download a self-extracting .exe pack from one of the mirrors:
    Mirror HTTPS HTTP Location Host
    Official link link US-TX SGC-Hosting
    #1 link link US-NY danodemano
    #2 link link US-GA TheCronus89
    #3 link link DE bodkov
    #4 link link NZ iDanoo
    #5 link link FR mxmod
    #6 --- link US-TX RB14060 (XygenHosting)
    #7 link link Cloudflare TheSqrtMinus1
    #8 --- link FR Falkerz
    #9 link --- US-MI ajcutshall
    #10 --- link UK nickuk (ClanPlanet)
  2. Secondary: The BT Sync key is no longer published because it was having issues with large swarms (failed to replicate reliably). You can get the key from an old thread or just download from one of the static pack mirrors instead.
  3. Tertiary: Connect to the SyncThing repo (instructions) to get fixes/updates immediately. This method is in TESTING may not be reliable.
  4. Quaternary: Source code
    All the code for Tron is available here on Github (Note: this doesn't include many of the utilities Tron relies on to function). If you want to view the code without downloading a ~500MB package, or want to contribute to the project, Github is a good place to do it.

Command-Line Support

Tron has full command-line support. All flags are optional, can be used simultaneously, and override their respective script default when used.
Usage: tron.bat [-a -c -d -dev -e -er -m -o -p -r -sa -sdb -sd -sdc -se -sfr -sk -sm -sp -spr -srr -ss -str -sw -v -x] | [-h] Optional flags (can be combined): -a Automatic mode (no welcome screen or prompts; implies -e) -c Config dump (display current config. Can be used with other flags to see what WOULD happen, but script will never execute if this flag is used) -d Dry run (run through script without executing any jobs) -dev Override OS detection (allow running on unsupported Windows versions) -e Accept EULA (suppress display of disclaimer warning screen) -er Email a report when finished. Requires you to configure SwithMailSettings.xml -m Preserve OEM Metro apps (don't remove them) -np Skip the pause at the end of the script -o Power off after running (overrides -r) -p Preserve power settings (don't reset power settings to default) -r Reboot automatically (auto-reboot 30 seconds after completion) -sa Skip anti-virus scans (MBAM, KVRT, Sophos) -sdb Skip de-bloat (OEM bloatware removal; implies -m) -sd Skip defrag (force Tron to ALWAYS skip Stage 5 defrag) -sdc Skip DISM component (SxS store) cleanup -se Skip Event Log clearing -sfr Skip filesystem permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -sk Skip Kaspersky Virus Rescue Tool (KVRT) scan -sm Skip Malwarebytes Anti-Malware (MBAM) installation -sp Skip patches (do not patch 7-Zip, Java Runtime, Adobe Flash or Reader) -spr Skip page file settings reset (don't set to "Let Windows manage the page file") -srr Skip registry permissions reset (saves time if you're in a hurry) -ss Skip Sophos Anti-Virus (SAV) scan -str Skip Telemetry Removal (don't remove Windows user tracking, Win7 and up only) -sw Skip Windows Updates (do not attempt to run Windows Update) -v Verbose. Show as much output as possible. NOTE: Significantly slower! -x Self-destruct. Tron deletes itself after running and leaves logs intact Misc flags (must be used alone): -h Display this help text 

Integrity

\tron\integrity_verification\checksums.txt contains SHA-256 checksums for every file and is signed with my PGP key (0x07d1490f82a211a2; included). You can use this to verify package integrity.
Donations (bitcoin): 16dxc4hgzuXYSKGbLuEVxXQCM8dW59ZSCe
"Do not withhold good from those to whom it is due, when it is in your power to act." -p3:27
submitted by vocatus to sysadmin [link] [comments]

What is ILCoin (ILC)?

ABOUT US Who we are? ILCOIN is a modern alternative to Bitcoin developed by R&G GmbH, using SHA-256 encryption technology. ILCOIN is not dependent on the present banking system. It has its own independent value. There are 2.5 billion ILCOIN available. Users all around the world use ILCOIN; mostly residing in Asia.
2.5 Billion ILCOIN
Users all around the world
170 k TX per block
SMART contracts What makes us different? ILCOIN can be safely stored in wallets built for the Cloud, Android, OSX and PC and it can be transferred directly to anyone instantly at virtually no cost – without banks, without chargebacks. ILCOIN users can monitor their transactions through our own block explorer. The system is already capable of handling up to 170 k TX per block, and it is compatible with today’s crypto platforms. ILCOIN is listed and freely traded on several cryptocurrency exchange sites and it is accepted online by merchants in an ever-increasing number of countries. We will be the first blockchain with SHA-256 technology to be able to create smart contracts. Our support center is always available to assist you with any issue that might arise during the use of our products. We also have tutorials to help you feel more comfortable and confident when interacting with our products. OUR HISTORY ILCOIN IS BORN 2015 ILGAMOS International Ltd. introduces ILCOIN cryptocurrency which was purchased by thousands of people in the first period of time after being issued.
ILCOIN BLOCK EXPLORER 2016 Q1 “Log in to a safe and encrypted site!”
Redesign of the ILCOIN Block Explorer. Correction of every entry from BTC to ILC. 1.0 Security Upgrade: Implementation of SSH Keys, Firewall, VPN, Public Key Infrastructure and SSL/TLS. Encryption, SSL Certificate with 256 bits of encryption. Activation of the message verification. Creation of the login module.
UPGRADED ILCOIN WEB WALLET 2016 Q3 "Where you can create your encrypted web wallet and start to trade with ILCOINs."
Redesign of the Web Wallet, improving wallet security issues; forcing encryption of all wallets. Implementation of the option of different fiat currencies in order to know the actual price of ILC. Implementation of a dynamic graph in order to know the historical price of ILC. Upgrade the security of the site and also added a SSL certificate to assure the connection security. New Graph Options. Improved Security. Upgraded Server Back-End Security.
ANDROID/IOS ILCOIN WALLET 2017 Q1 "Have access to your ILCOIN no matter where you are, with the most advanced ILCOIN application!"
Layout Design. Encryption of the wallets and mnemonic phrase for recovering the wallet. Multi-Address System. Implementation of a label and password for every wallet in your device. Availability to see the unconfirmed balance. QR Code reader for sending ILC and QR Generator for receiving ILC. Transaction history. Dynamic graph with historical ILC/USD price. Transaction fee configuration. Sign and verify message. Set Default Wallet (every time you open the app, that will be the one to open).
ILCOIN SMART CONTRACTS 2019 Contracts between parties. Define rules and penalties for each type of contract. Up to 5 type of contract to define. Example type of contract exchange properties. Example type of contract exchange shares.
EXCHANGE LIST
Binance
Huobi
Kucoin
Bibox
Qryptos
Satoexchange
BIGone
Bitrue
Bilaxy
Bit-Z
Linkcoin
SECURE WALLET
Ledgerwallet
Trezor
submitted by icoinformation2021 to ILCoin [link] [comments]

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: After Butterfly Labs collapses, engineers find new jobs at 21 Inc.

BEGIN BLOG POST

After Butterfly Labs collapses, engineers find new jobs at 21 Inc.

A bitcoin miner has shipped on time. Yes, that is news. A new venture-capital backed company, 21 Inc., has released a miniature bitcoin miner that they call a "Bitcoin computer". For $399.99, you get a Raspberry Pi, an SHA-256 ASIC board, and a giant fan.
Again, this is news: normally, a manufacturer of bitcoin miners would overdesign and underengineer their equipment, or, if they managed to ship something functional, it would be so poorly engineered -- and over budget -- that it be an explosion waiting to happen and/or priced comparably to a four-door sedan.
21 Inc. has done something remarkable in the Bitcoin world: they started a company that operates like a legitimate business. They're even listed on Amazon.com, a company that's so strict with vendors that Nintendo was kicked off their system for not kissing enough customer ass.
Okay, enough with the praise.

This thing sucks.

The 21.co "computer" certainly deserves a place in the VC world, along with the other products consisting of wild promises and inane use cases. For the price of 4 Raspberry Pi computer kits, you get the following:
(If you have a remote desire to develop applications that use bitcoin, stop here. Go through that list and buy just those items above. You don't need anything else. If you're looking for comedy, or if you're a sucker with too much money, read on...)

Is that all I get for my money?

Those products alone don't allow you to make Bitcoin applications, apparently. You need these things, too:

How about the software demos?

It's difficult to justify developing a $400 computer that can't do much. So, to entice some customers, 21 Inc. included demos that try really hard to make customers feel inspired. Here are just a few things that 21 Inc. claims were totally impossible before their product existed:

What are the real customers saying?

The packaging is slick:
"This @21dotco computer came already opened..."
The hardware is reliable:
"...it must have lost power, which caused my SSH keys to become corrupted."
The software is revolutionary:
"...it will be more expensive to pay for your spotify subscription via your electricity bill, but a lot of people don't care."

I want to buy it anyway!

Go ahead. I won't stop you. Oh, and 21 Inc. doesn't accept bitcoins.
END BLOG POST
submitted by theirmoss to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

My Collection of information for when someone states where does Bitcoin, or Crypto-currencies derive their value

Let’s start with some basics first then we can move forward. Your question is where does Bitcoin derive its value from? Well that is a multifaceted answer. Its Utility creates the demand, plus it has a relatively high scarcity, but that is an over-simplified answer. A few other factors need to be addressed. The first point is the security of the block-chain, and the second is the openness of the block-chain which is derived from the public ledger. It literally records every transaction for public records which are available to any, and everyone to review. This allows it to stand up to public scrutiny, and a thorough technical analysis.
We will start here for you. This is the basis of the whole concept.
A Block-chain is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography. Each block typically contains a hash pointer as a link to a previous block, a timestamp and transaction data. By design, block-chains are inherently resistant to modification of the data. A block-chain is defined as an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two, or more parties efficiently and in a verifiable, and permanent way. For use as a distributed ledger, a block-chain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires collusion of the network majority.
Block-chains are secure by design and are an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralized consensus has therefore been achieved with a block-chain. This makes block-chains potentially suitable for the recording of events, medical records, and other records management activities, such as identity management, transaction processing, documenting provenance, or food traceability. The invention of the block-chain for bitcoin made it the first digital currency to solve the double spending problem without the need of a trusted authority or central server. The bitcoin design has been the inspiration for other applications. Block-chain also has incorporated the Merkle Tree, and Fast Merkle Trees. A Hash tree or Merkle tree is a tree in which every leaf node is labelled with a data block and every non-leaf node is labelled with the cryptographic hash of the labels of its child nodes. Hash trees allow efficient and secure verification of the contents of large data structures. Hash trees are a generalization of hash lists and hash chains. Demonstrating that a leaf node is a part of a given binary hash tree requires computing a number of hashes proportional to the logarithm of the number of leaf nodes of the tree; this contrasts with hash lists, where the number is proportional to the number of leaf nodes itself. Hash trees can be used to verify any kind of data stored, handled and transferred in and between computers. Currently the main use of hash trees is to make sure that data blocks received from other peers in a peer-to-peer network are received undamaged and unaltered, and even to check that the other peers do not lie and send fake blocks. Suggestions have been made to use hash trees in trusted computing systems. Hash trees are also used in hash-based cryptography.
Hash trees are used in the IPFS, Btrfs and ZFS file systems (to counter data degradation), BitTorrent protocol, Dat protocol, Apache Wave protocol, the Bitcoin and Ethereum peer-to-peer networks, the Certificate Transparency framework, and a number of NoSQL.
Whether you understand it, or not we will be moving more to this as a standard for all most all industries. Yes, the United States is looking at getting rid of Social Security numbers in favor of your identity being stored on the block-chain, in fact it is already in the works as they are in the research of feasibility stage.
What you need to is familiarize yourself with the following regarding block-chain protocols.
Proof of Work (POW) A Proof of Work is a piece of data which is difficult (costly, time-consuming) to produce but easy for others to verify and which satisfies certain requirements. Producing a proof of work can be a random process with low probability so that a lot of trial and error is required on average before a valid proof of work is generated. Bitcoin uses the Hash-cash proof of work system.
One application of this idea is using Hash-cash as a method to prevent email spam, requiring a proof of work on the email's contents (including the to address), on every email. Legitimate emails will be able to do the work to generate the proof easily (not much work is required for a single email), but mass spam emailers will have difficulty generating the required proofs (which would require huge computational resources).
Hash-cash proofs of work are used in Bitcoin for block generation. In order for a block to be accepted by network participants, miners must complete a proof of work which covers all of the data in the block. The difficulty of this work is adjusted so as to limit the rate at which new blocks can be generated by the network to one every 10 minutes. Due to the very low probability of successful generation, this makes it unpredictable which worker computer in the network will be able to generate the next block.
For a block to be valid it must hash to a value less than the current target; this means that each block indicates that work has been done generating it. Each block contains the hash of the preceding block, thus each block has a chain of blocks that together contain a large amount of work. Changing a block (which can only be done by making a new block containing the same predecessor) requires regenerating all successors and redoing the work they contain. This protects the block chain from tampering.
The most widely used proof-of-work scheme is based on SHA-256 and was introduced as a part of Bitcoin. Some other hashing algorithms that are used for proof-of-work include Scrypt, Blake-256, CryptoNight, HEFTY1, Quark, SHA-3, scrypt-jane.
Proof of Stake (POS) Proof-of-stake (POS) is a type of algorithm by which a cryptocurrency block-chain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. In POS-based cryptocurrencies the creator of the next block is chosen via various combinations of random selection and wealth or age (i.e. the stake).In general, a proof of stake algorithm looks as follows. The block-chain keeps track of a set of validators, and anyone who holds the block-chain's base cryptocurrency (in Ethereum's case, ether) can become a validator by sending a special type of transaction that locks up their ether into a deposit. The process of creating and agreeing to new blocks is then done through a consensus algorithm that all current validators can participate in.
There are many kinds of consensus algorithms, and many ways to assign rewards to validators who participate in the consensus algorithm, so there are many "flavors" of proof of stake. From an algorithmic perspective, there are two major types: chain-based proof of stake and BFT-style proof of stake.
In chain-based proof of stake, the algorithm pseudo-randomly selects a validator during each time slot (every period of 10 seconds might be a time slot), and assigns that validator the right to create a single block, and this block must point to some previous block (normally the block at the end of the previously longest chain), and so over time most blocks converge into a single constantly growing chain.
In BFT-style proof of stake, validators are randomly assigned the right to propose blocks, but agreeing on which block is canonical is done through a multi-round process where every validator sends a "vote" for some specific block during each round, and at the end of the process all (honest and online) validators permanently agree on whether or not any given block is part of the chain. Note that blocks may still be chained together; the key difference is that consensus on a block can come within one block, and does not depend on the length or size of the chain after it. This is what Ethereum is moving to later in 2018.
Advantages of POS over POW No need to consume large quantities of electricity in order to secure a block-chain ( it's estimated that both Bitcoin and Ethereum burn over $1 million worth of electricity and hardware costs per day as part of their consensus mechanism). Because of the lack of high electricity consumption, there is not as much need to issue as many new coins in order to motivate participants to keep participating in the network. It may theoretically even be possible to have negative net issuance, where a portion of transaction fees are "burned" and so the supply goes down over time. Proof of stake opens the door to a wider array of techniques that use game-theoretic mechanism design in order to better discourage centralized cartels from forming and, if they do form, from acting in ways that are harmful to the network. Reduced centralization risks, as economies of scale are much less of an issue. $10 million of coins will get you exactly 10 times higher returns than $1 million of coins, without any additional disproportionate gains because at the higher level you can afford better mass-production equipment. Ability to use economic penalties to make various forms of 51% attacks vastly more expensive to carry out than proof of work.
Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS) Delegated Proof-of-Stake, on the other hand, works slightly differently. It is a more efficient PoS algorithm altogether, and seemingly provides more decentralization when it comes to issuing stake rewards to more people. Moreover, DPOS provides reliably confirmed transactions on the networks that implement this technology. If it were to be added to bitcoin at some point, it could potentially speed up transaction times, even though it would add inflation to the ecosystem as well.
Under the hood, DPOS uses a reputation system and real-time voting to achieve consensus. To be more specific, a panel of trusted parties has to be established, with all of its members eligible to create blocks and prevent non-trusted parties from participating. Delegates, the parties responsible for creating blocks, are unable to change transaction details. However, they can prevent specific transactions from being included in the next network block. This seemingly requires a fair bit of trust, which makes the concept look far less appealing.
However, there is a caveat. Any transaction not included in the next block, or a block failing to create, will mean the next network block is twice the size. In a way, this prevents malicious intent to block certain transactions or blocks being created in the allotted time period. All it does is perhaps slightly delay said transaction or block, but it is seemingly impossible to prevent inclusion and creation in the long run.
Moreover, anyone who behaves in a nefarious way will have their behavior exposed to the public. Community members of the DPOS-capable currencies can vote to have said person removed as a delegate altogether. It appears as if cheating under DPOS rules is not only impossible, but it is not in anybody’s best interest to do so either. It is equally possible to have more or fewer delegates as part of the network, although that may not necessarily be beneficial either. It is always possible to change the number of delegates, though, which is an important factor to keep in mind.
It is also worth mentioning delegates in a DPOS ecosystem are paid for the creation of blocks and inclusion of transactions. However, the delegates can use these funds to pay for marketing or lobbying efforts, which benefit the exposure of the cryptocurrency network as a whole. Network stakeholders determine how much delegates are paid for their efforts.
Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance (dBFT) The dBFT (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance) algorithm
Consensus is about trying to maintain one version of truth. Over time we have transactions that we want to record in this ledger (book of truth). Because block-chains run decentralized around the world, and they receive different transactions at different times, they can often disagree about what is truth.
The key is to get consensus one way or another, otherwise all sorts of bad things can happen (double spending).
dBFT Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance is a fancy and cool name for a solution to getting eventual consensus under certain conditions.
The condition is really simple: as long as less than 1/3 of bookkeeper nodes are BAD actors, you can get eventual consensus and everyone is happy.
That's the main thing to remember, and I'll explain why 1/3 and not 1/4 or any other fraction.
An Analogy - Painting the walls A King has decided to paint the walls of his castle. He's decided it is either going to be Green (G) or Black (B). He doesn't mind which of the two but he wants consistency throughout the kingdom. And he wants all of his sons and daughters to agree on the color.
So he calls his four painters to come over and sends a signed message to his sons and daughters: I am getting my painters to redecorate my walls. I am torn between Green and Black. To resolve this, I want you, my beloved sons and daughters, to agree on the color and tell my painters and they will paint my walls. As soon as a painter hears from you and you can prove that 2/3 of my family agree on a color, she will start painting that color. Good luck.
The painters are all contactable by any of the sons and daughters. However, due to fighting between the family, the sons and daughters don't all talk to each other directly. Instead they pass messages between them. They all connected, just not directly.
Some of the family is evil and they want to get at least one of the painters to paint the wrong color. The family discuss and decide on the following protocol: 1. The oldest member of the family is elected speaker. He or she will communicate the chosen color with their signature.
Everyone will communicate that color to everyone else (until everyone is informed.) along with their signatures. If you hear from 2/3 of people the same color, then you can call any or all of the painters and tell them. If not, wait for some time and then elect the next oldest member as the speaker and repeat.
These signatures are magic and cannot be forged, and also are without a doubt proof that the person did sign it. Proving consensus protection.
With this setup, we can now prove that as long as less than a 1/3 of the family are evil, it is impossible for any of the painters to get a different message to the others and thereby paint the walls inconsistently.
The proof goes like this. Imagine that the evil members of the family belong to a secret clan F and have managed to insert themselves in between the other family members such that the rest of the family is split into two groups, R1 and R2. R1 members can talk to each other and to F but they can't talk directly to R2. And the same for R2. So F is in control here as they can control what information flows from R1 to R2 and vice versa.
In order for them to exact chaos, they need to get 2/3 of the signatures (including theirs) to be Green and Black. Remember, they can sign Green and pass that message to one person and also sign Black and pass that message to another person.
The next bit is really easy. In order to get 2/3 of the signatures, we need the size of F and R1 (the number of people in those two groups) to be >= 2/3 of the total. We also need that to be true for F and R2. That way R1 members think that it's green (for example) and the other group think it's black and they tell the painters and it all goes wrong.
However, because F is less than a 1/3 (remember, 2/3 people are honest), then it's impossible for BOTH F+R1 and F+R2 to be >= 2/3 x N. By using the fact that F+R1+R2 = N (the total number in the family) and a bit of algebraic rearrangement, you can prove that to get two separate consensus you requires F >= 1/3. Ta da - that's impossible as F < 1/3.
dBFT doesn't guarantee consensus in the sense that it's possible the messaging network is broken and people just can't talk to each other. But it gives protection guarantees that if you do reach consensus you can't then reach some other different consensus later. As long as the bad actors are less than a 1/3 of the bookkeepers (the Family), then everything is all good. This is the important part of ensuring the integrity of the system going forward.
Now that we have stated that You will need to read about the following.
Consensus Nodes (Bookkeeper Nodes) *See dBFT section
Master Nodes *See Full Node, but used in a POS block-chain. These also pay out fees to you for running a Master Node.
Full Nodes These are usually POW block-chains
Full nodes download every block and transaction and check them against Bitcoin's core consensus rules. Here are examples of consensus rules, though there are many more:
· Blocks may only create a certain number of bitcoins. (Currently 12.5 BTC per block.)
· Transactions must have correct signatures for the bitcoins being spent.
· Transactions/blocks must be in the correct data format.
· Within a single block-chain, a transaction output cannot be double-spent.
If a transaction or block violates the consensus rules, then it is absolutely rejected, even if every other node on the network thinks that it is valid. This is one of the most important characteristics of full nodes: they do what's right no matter what. For full nodes, miners actually have fairly limited power: they can only reorder or remove transactions, and only by expending a lot of computing power. A powerful miner is able to execute some serious attacks, but because full nodes rely on miners only for a few things, miners could not completely change or destroy Bitcoin.
Nodes that have different consensus rules are actually using two different networks/currencies. Changing any of the consensus rules requires a hard fork, which can be thought of as creating a new currency and having everyone move to it. Consensus rules are different from policy rules, which specify how a node or miner prioritizes or discourages certain things. Policy rules can be changed freely, and different nodes can have different policy rules. Because all full nodes must use exactly the same consensus rules in order to remain compatible with each other, even duplicating bugs and oddities in the original consensus rules, creating a full node from scratch is extremely difficult and dangerous. It is therefore recommended that everyone who wishes to run a full node use software based on the reference client, which is the only client guaranteed to behave correctly.
At minimum, a full node must download every transaction that has ever taken place, all new transactions, and all block headers. Additionally, full nodes must store information about every unspent transaction output until it is spent. By default full nodes are inefficient in that they download each new transaction at least twice, and they store the entire block chain (>60 GB) forever, even though only the unspent transaction outputs (<2 GB) are required.
Again to give you a slightly different over-simplified answer Bitcoin’s value is derived from the energy it cost to run the block-chain whether its coal-powered, hydro-powered, natural gas powered, or nuclear reactor-powered electricity.
Will Bitcoin be replaced by another block-chain as the reserve standard? Well it’s a possibility, but not likely any time soon. Most new Alt-coins are here to Compliment Bitcoin. Why do I say this? Well the goal is a Decentralized Smart Economy with the least amount of Centralized control possible. The Lightning Network integrates Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Vertcoin.
Bitcoin has 21,000,000 coins when they are finally fully released. This requires ASIC Miners a rather expensive, and specialized Computer. The block times are ten minutes. These for the older versions will still run about $20,000. It may have changed a little since I last looked, but the cutting edge ones will be much more.
Litecoin has 84,000,000 coins when they are finally fully released. This requires ASIC Miners a rather expensive, and specialized Computer. The block times are 2.5 minutes. It’s an improved clone of Bitcoin.
Vertcoin has 84,000,000 coins when they are finally fully released. The average Joe can mine this with a good graphics card. The block times are 2.5 minutes. It’s an modified clone of Litecoin.
Ethereum Is a Smart contract platform. It has many uses cases. Too many to list. This will be moved to a POS block-chain.
NEO Is a Smart contract platform. It has many uses cases. Too many to list. This has a lot of things in common with Ethereum, but at the same time it doesn’t. This uses the dBFT system, and has more common programming languages for Smart Contracts.
ARK this is a Smart Bridge ecosystem. It’s aim is to build bridges to other block-chains. Its aim is to be the hub of this new block-chain economy. Ark has bridged to Bitcoin, and also to Ethereum. They have plans for NEO, and Monero as well in the future. ARK has many other use cases I haven’t discussed, and don’t have time to right now.
These very originally made to compete with each other, but have found ways to coexist, but are also still be competitive with each other at the same time. I have kept this section short. I could spend many more pages writing about these Cryptocurrencies, and many more. These are the building blocks for the Smart Economy.
This is what Bitcoin, and all of the Alt-coins were brought about to fix.
· People used to pay each other in gold and silver. Difficult to transport. Difficult to divide.
· Paper money was invented. A claim to gold in a bank vault. Easier to transport and divide.
· Banks gave out more paper money than they had gold in the vault. They ran “fractional reserves”. A real money maker. But every now and then, banks collapsed because of runs on the bank.
· Central banking was invented. Central banks would be lenders of last resort. Runs on the bank were thus mitigated by banks guaranteeing each other’s deposits through a central bank. The risk of a bank run was not lowered. Its frequency was diminished and its impact was increased. After all, banks remained basically insolvent in this fractional reserve scheme.
· Banks would still get in trouble. But now, if one bank got in sufficient trouble, they would all be in trouble at the same time. Governments would have to step in to save them.
· All ties between the financial system and gold were severed in 1971 when Nixon decided that the USD would no longer be exchangeable for a fixed amount of gold. This exacerbated the problem, because there was now effectively no limit anymore on the amount of paper money that banks could create.
· From this moment on, all money was created as credit. Money ceased to be supported by an asset. When you take out a loan, money is created and lent to you. Banks expect this freshly minted money to be returned to them with interest. Sure, banks need to keep adequate reserves. But these reserves basically consist of the same credit-based money. And reserves are much lower than the loans they make.
· This led to an explosion in the money supply. The Federal Reserve stopped reporting M3 in 2006. But the ECB currently reports a yearly increase in the supply of the euro of about 5%.
· This leads to a yearly increase in prices. The price increase is somewhat lower than the increase in the money supply. This is because of increased productivity. Society gets better at producing stuff cheaper all the time. So, in absence of money creation you would expect prices to drop every year. That they don’t is the effect of money creation.
· What remains is an inflation rate in the 2% range.
· Banks have discovered that they can siphon off all the productivity increase + 2% every year, without people complaining too much. They accomplish this currently by increasing the money supply by 5% per year, getting this money returned to them at an interest.
· Apart from this insidious tax on society, banks take society hostage every couple of years. In case of a financial crisis, banks need bailouts or the system will collapse.
· Apart from these problems, banks and governments are now striving to do away with cash. This would mean that no two free men would be able to exchange money without intermediation by a bank. If you believe that to transact with others is a fundamental right, this should scare you.
· The absence of sound money was at the root of the problem. We were force-fed paper money because there were no good alternatives. Gold and silver remain difficult to use.
· When it was tried to launch a private currency backed by precious metals (Liberty dollar), this initiative was shut down because it undermined the U.S. currency system. Apparently, a currency alternative could only thrive if “nobody” launched it and if they was no central point of failure.
· What was needed was a peer-to-peer electronic cash system. This was what Satoshi Nakamoto described in 2008. It was a response to all the problems described above. That is why he labeled the genesis block with the text: “03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks.”. Bitcoin was meant to be an alternative to our current financial system.
To answer you on if this is a bubble. I personally do not see it that way at the moment. There will always be corrections in Crypto, or any field of Investing. Yes we have seen an unprecedented meteoric rise in cryptocurrencies there will be severe corrections in the future, but there will not be a ninety-nine percent crash like you are stating unless there is another Great Depression, or severe economic collapse. Cryptocurrencies are currently the greatest potential wealth equalizer around the world.
submitted by Dobsie2 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

4A Coin Whitepaper

4A Coin: A web-based cryptocurrency network. Summary~ Because the first generation cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum and Litecoin distribute the money issuing task according to the power of machines such as GPU and CPU, they accumulate the payments in the mempool and they mine by changing the nonce number randomly or by continuously increasing it and trying repeatedly until they find a hash summary that matches the difficulty they specify, instead of processing the payments made in real-time instantly. This solution is ingenious if you want to use digital currency as a value storage tool. But when you try to use these digital currencies to pay for coffee or purchase a product online, it stands out as a disadvantage since you have to pay commissions to those miners and have to wait too long. As you know, the power of large payment solutions, such as Paypal or Western Union, comes from their servers and software. We also started working on a noncentralized, blockchain-protected end-toend (P2P) cryptocurrency that works as a web service. In such a case, for the system to survive and ensure security, instead of paying for the server cost, we set up a system where servers, that are nodes in the system, can get paid, provided they just stay online for 44 hours instead of mining. People get paid for a useful service they provide instead of wasting their time. There will be a reason for people to install this system on their servers because they are rewarded as long as they remain as servers. When people send an end-to-end payment, the servers, by finding a summary of this payment (They find this summary in order for all systems to meet at a common point and validate payments, and because it is a necessity of the blockchain architecture), ending with 4A, including the time, the sender, the receiver, amount, summary of the previous transaction and the data contained in a digital signature indicating that the sender is actually sending it, without any difficulty and they add it to their databases. Because there are no such concepts as block size or mining involved in any way, the registration process is completed instantly. We use a task queue management library called Celery Project, which is used by companies such as Instagram and Mozilla to prevent complication that may occur if 100 transactions take place within the same second. Security~ If you noticed when you entered the site, I told you that it was safer than Visa. This may seem an ambitious sentence for many, but if you actually know what you're doing when you buy a product online, you are aware of the risks involved. Risk & Problem~ When you type information in the payment form, such as credit card, CVV, and so on, malicious people on the web can read the data you send through these forms. Just because of this, payment solutions require you to add an SSL certificates to your site. These SSL certificates actually save your data using cryptography and protect it until it reaches the recipient. Well, what if the seller has bad intentions? Solution~ 4A Coin encrypts your payments using the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) and sends a signature confirming that you want to pay instead of giving your digital password to the network. This is actually the idea of Satoshi Nakamoto and it is known as P2PKH in Bitcoin. So if we actually compare 4A Coin to a credit card, then no one will ever see your credit card details. In addition, SSL certificate is no longer needed because a malicious user who can tap into your network seeing your payment signature won't change anything, besides it is already publicly shared everywhere. Thus, we have already gotten rid of certificate issues like security and SSL in the first place. Commission Solution~ When you benefit from a local payment solution, you will have to pay a commission to the companies you work with, between 5% and 20% of your sales. The coins you use in 4A Coin are already generated by the nodes, so they do not ask for a commission. Thanks to this, you do not pay commissions for transactions nor for any other reason. Wallets ~ wallet_id ~ 4A01eaedb37fc09fdb94c6d632adf9f63d private_key ~ cbc949239a333559f5dd8b0b5cf3d32923c2cab3 7c2bde9c8042a3dafe59a6b9 Your wallet is actually an ECDSA key pair. At first, we used RSA for this, but we had to switch to ECDAS because the keys were too long in the RSA and were taking too much space. Users have public keys, private keys, and wallet addresses created by processing public keys. Public key is not visible to users on the system. Instead, they will see a short version of a summary generated by public key processing as their wallet. def generate_wallet_from_pkey(public_key): binmnmn = public_key.encode('utf-8') first_step = 34 - len(settings.CURRENCY) wallet_id = hashlib.sha256(binmnmn).hexdigest() wallet_id = wallet_id[-first_step:] wallet_id = "".join((settings.CURRENCY, wallet_id)) return wallet_id This function simply creates a wallet from the simply given public key's SHA-256 summary. Public keys are required for the approval of digital signatures, so it is necessary to keep the public key in transactions. Payments~ When a user makes a payment, the payment time (in epoch format & GMT), the sender's address, the recipient's address, the summary of the previous transaction and the amount sent are transferred to a dictionary. This dictionary can be sorted differently on different computers, and to prevent this, the contents of this dictionary must be organized in a way that is ordered from A to Z, and will give the same result in everyone. data = collections.OrderedDict(sorted(data.items())) With the above code, we can create a stable dictionary that can work globally. Finally, we take a summary of this dictionary and record it in our database, and broadcast it to other servers that we have recorded it. Peer to Peer~ We use the TCP port and web socket technology to ensure that the system is P2P. For the script to work, you need to use Python3. Because, we use the Twister Matrix Library and the Autobahn Python libraries to provide real time transactions. The port we use globally is the 9000th port. There are 3 different types of broadcasting in real time processes: The first one is “Hi, I'm a new node, please add me to your network” and the other one is “Hi, I'm a new process, please verify me”. This is parsed on the server side and necessary actions are taken. The third broadcasting type will be explained in the proof of cloud section. Mining ~ A total of 450 million of 4A Coins will be issued with 300.000.000 Pre-mined. 150 million coins will be mined by a method called Proof of Cloud. Proof of Cloud~ Proof of Cloud or POC refers to a method of earning based on time as a server instead of mining. Each node, by staying online for 44 hours, will send a message as "I have been online for 44 hours, so check my database to see if I have been online by reviewing my recent transactions." If it proves that you have approved transactions for the last 44 hours, you will be eligible to receive the reward. Celery & Redis~ We use Celery, a library that automatically controls tasks so that certain processes can be repeated at certain times in the system. Celery needs Redis to work. Redis is an open source NoSQL (NoSQL is the name given to database systems that store “non-relational” data schematically. NoSQL is literally being used in the sense of "not-only- SQL", which means "only SQL is not used".) software written on Linux as the pure version. Keeping the system up and running~ We use Gunicorn 'Green Unicorn' and Nginx, the Python WSI HTTP Server, to ensure that the system can handle high load and maintain its endurance; Nginx is a Web server designed to focus on high concurrency, high performance and low memory usage. It can also be used as a reverse proxy server, load balancer, and HTTP cache. We were actually using Supervisord to keep all these systems up and running, but since Supervisord did not work with Python3 we started using Circusd developed by the Mozilla Foundation and we were more satisfied with it than Supervisiord. It is much easier to install and use, requires Tornado framework to work on its own, and works correctly with the 4.5.3 version of Tornado. This version is already installed automatically in requirements.txt, but it is important that you know this detail.
submitted by 4acoin to u/4acoin [link] [comments]

4A Coin Whitepaper

4A Coin: A web-based cryptocurrency network. Summary~ Because the first generation cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum and Litecoin distribute the money issuing task according to the power of machines such as GPU and CPU, they accumulate the payments in the mempool and they mine by changing the nonce number randomly or by continuously increasing it and trying repeatedly until they find a hash summary that matches the difficulty they specify, instead of processing the payments made in real-time instantly. This solution is ingenious if you want to use digital currency as a value storage tool. But when you try to use these digital currencies to pay for coffee or purchase a product online, it stands out as a disadvantage since you have to pay commissions to those miners and have to wait too long. As you know, the power of large payment solutions, such as Paypal or Western Union, comes from their servers and software. We also started working on a noncentralized, blockchain-protected end-toend (P2P) cryptocurrency that works as a web service. In such a case, for the system to survive and ensure security, instead of paying for the server cost, we set up a system where servers, that are nodes in the system, can get paid, provided they just stay online for 44 hours instead of mining. People get paid for a useful service they provide instead of wasting their time. There will be a reason for people to install this system on their servers because they are rewarded as long as they remain as servers. When people send an end-to-end payment, the servers, by finding a summary of this payment (They find this summary in order for all systems to meet at a common point and validate payments, and because it is a necessity of the blockchain architecture), ending with 4A, including the time, the sender, the receiver, amount, summary of the previous transaction and the data contained in a digital signature indicating that the sender is actually sending it, without any difficulty and they add it to their databases. Because there are no such concepts as block size or mining involved in any way, the registration process is completed instantly. We use a task queue management library called Celery Project, which is used by companies such as Instagram and Mozilla to prevent complication that may occur if 100 transactions take place within the same second. Security~ If you noticed when you entered the site, I told you that it was safer than Visa. This may seem an ambitious sentence for many, but if you actually know what you're doing when you buy a product online, you are aware of the risks involved. Risk & Problem~ When you type information in the payment form, such as credit card, CVV, and so on, malicious people on the web can read the data you send through these forms. Just because of this, payment solutions require you to add an SSL certificates to your site. These SSL certificates actually save your data using cryptography and protect it until it reaches the recipient. Well, what if the seller has bad intentions? Solution~ 4A Coin encrypts your payments using the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) and sends a signature confirming that you want to pay instead of giving your digital password to the network. This is actually the idea of Satoshi Nakamoto and it is known as P2PKH in Bitcoin. So if we actually compare 4A Coin to a credit card, then no one will ever see your credit card details. In addition, SSL certificate is no longer needed because a malicious user who can tap into your network seeing your payment signature won't change anything, besides it is already publicly shared everywhere. Thus, we have already gotten rid of certificate issues like security and SSL in the first place. Commission Solution~ When you benefit from a local payment solution, you will have to pay a commission to the companies you work with, between 5% and 20% of your sales. The coins you use in 4A Coin are already generated by the nodes, so they do not ask for a commission. Thanks to this, you do not pay commissions for transactions nor for any other reason. Wallets ~ wallet_id ~ 4A01eaedb37fc09fdb94c6d632adf9f63d private_key ~ cbc949239a333559f5dd8b0b5cf3d32923c2cab3 7c2bde9c8042a3dafe59a6b9 Your wallet is actually an ECDSA key pair. At first, we used RSA for this, but we had to switch to ECDAS because the keys were too long in the RSA and were taking too much space. Users have public keys, private keys, and wallet addresses created by processing public keys. Public key is not visible to users on the system. Instead, they will see a short version of a summary generated by public key processing as their wallet. def generate_wallet_from_pkey(public_key): binmnmn = public_key.encode('utf-8') first_step = 34 - len(settings.CURRENCY) wallet_id = hashlib.sha256(binmnmn).hexdigest() wallet_id = wallet_id[-first_step:] wallet_id = "".join((settings.CURRENCY, wallet_id)) return wallet_id This function simply creates a wallet from the simply given public key's SHA-256 summary. Public keys are required for the approval of digital signatures, so it is necessary to keep the public key in transactions. Payments~ When a user makes a payment, the payment time (in epoch format & GMT), the sender's address, the recipient's address, the summary of the previous transaction and the amount sent are transferred to a dictionary. This dictionary can be sorted differently on different computers, and to prevent this, the contents of this dictionary must be organized in a way that is ordered from A to Z, and will give the same result in everyone. data = collections.OrderedDict(sorted(data.items())) With the above code, we can create a stable dictionary that can work globally. Finally, we take a summary of this dictionary and record it in our database, and broadcast it to other servers that we have recorded it. Peer to Peer~ We use the TCP port and web socket technology to ensure that the system is P2P. For the script to work, you need to use Python3. Because, we use the Twister Matrix Library and the Autobahn Python libraries to provide real time transactions. The port we use globally is the 9000th port. There are 3 different types of broadcasting in real time processes: The first one is “Hi, I'm a new node, please add me to your network” and the other one is “Hi, I'm a new process, please verify me”. This is parsed on the server side and necessary actions are taken. The third broadcasting type will be explained in the proof of cloud section. Mining ~ A total of 450 million of 4A Coins will be issued with 300.000.000 Pre-mined. 150 million coins will be mined by a method called Proof of Cloud. Proof of Cloud~ Proof of Cloud or POC refers to a method of earning based on time as a server instead of mining. Each node, by staying online for 44 hours, will send a message as "I have been online for 44 hours, so check my database to see if I have been online by reviewing my recent transactions." If it proves that you have approved transactions for the last 44 hours, you will be eligible to receive the reward. Celery & Redis~ We use Celery, a library that automatically controls tasks so that certain processes can be repeated at certain times in the system. Celery needs Redis to work. Redis is an open source NoSQL (NoSQL is the name given to database systems that store “non-relational” data schematically. NoSQL is literally being used in the sense of "not-only- SQL", which means "only SQL is not used".) software written on Linux as the pure version. Keeping the system up and running~ We use Gunicorn 'Green Unicorn' and Nginx, the Python WSI HTTP Server, to ensure that the system can handle high load and maintain its endurance; Nginx is a Web server designed to focus on high concurrency, high performance and low memory usage. It can also be used as a reverse proxy server, load balancer, and HTTP cache. We were actually using Supervisord to keep all these systems up and running, but since Supervisord did not work with Python3 we started using Circusd developed by the Mozilla Foundation and we were more satisfied with it than Supervisiord. It is much easier to install and use, requires Tornado framework to work on its own, and works correctly with the 4.5.3 version of Tornado. This version is already installed automatically in requirements.txt, but it is important that you know this detail.
submitted by 4acoin to u/4acoin [link] [comments]

Syscoin announces Bitcoin as a payment option in decentralized marketplace.

We've opened up our arms and accepted Bitcoin as the de-facto emerging currency of the future.
The past two months have seen a radical transformation in our software and identity. We've completely stipped down and redesigned our code, our purpose and with the launch of the new Syscoin 2.0 "Shade" wallet in the next few weeks we are reshaping ourselves from a simple 'altcoin' to a Bitcoin enabling suite of applications complimented and powered by the SYS token.
Rather than building a "walled garden" and forcing everyone to use SYS to appreciate the fruits of that garden, we've enabled buying and selling within the SYS decentralized marketplace using Bitcoin. Dust amounts of the Syscoin token (SYS) will be required to fuel the network and enable advanced features but most purchases can be made directly using Bitcoin. This insulates merchants from possible volatility in SYS price and brings incredible value to Bitcoin users. Based on service utilization SYS fees may be burned rather than returned to miners- actively decreasing the SYS supply as marketplace usage increases.
The new Syscoin 2.0 wallet features a built-in decentralized marketplace anyone can use to buy and sell goods and services without moderation, political interference, downtime, requiring hosting or even a 24/7 internet connection. If you, your business or friends have services you'd like to offer in exchange for BTC/SYS/USD/etc those services can be offered, advertised, resold (if enabled) and procured all using the Syscoin marketplace. Syscoin 2.0 also offers fiat-price pegging based on current exchange rates. Now you can list your good or service priced in USD/EUGBP/etc and know that upon sale you'll recieve enough SYS to convert to the desired amount of fiat currency. Additional advanced services such as Aliases, Escrow, Certificates, Encrypted Messaging and Price Pegging are now included but are currently only available using the SYS token. Enabling these advanced features for Bitcoin are part of our post-hardfork plans.
Future plans also include e-commerce plugins for major platforms such as Shopify, Magento, Opencart and PrestaShop as well as integration options or import filters to use with eBay, Etsy and Amazon. Support for additional altcoins will also be examined, and we'll be rolling out additional wallet design improvements and mobile experiences as well.
Syscoin is very similar to another open-source decentraized marketplace project called OpenBazaar. OpenBazaar is a peer-to-peer service like bittorrent. With OpenBazaar your computer is required to be online 24/7 or another node with a cache of your items must be online - if not, your items are not visible for sale/purchase. Because the implementation is p2p based rather than blockchain based, the anti-forgery mechanisms provided by the blockchain are not present in OpenBazaar. Some features such as encrypted messaging and escrow work differently in Syscoin as compared to OpenBazaar as they're secured by the network consensus mechanism within the Syscoin network.
Syscoin is an open-source blockchain based application. Every Syscoin transaction, listing and encrypted message is persisted on the blockchain regardless of your connection to the internet. All information is secured using SYS pub/priv keys and ECIES encryption by default. Syscoin does not have private funding like OpenBazaar; instead we have passion. We have been building this as a product for the last two years for free. You can't invest in OpenBazaar, but you can invest in Syscoin!
The Syscoin 2.0 hard fork is slated for the beginning of March. Maximum coin count will drop from 2 billion to 6.68 Million. For clarity we are referring to them as SYS1 and SYS2 but the new token will continue to be traded as SYS. Current SYS1 holders will have little to no issues switching to SYS2. Current wallets will be compatible with SYS2 and there will be no time limit on conversion. Exchanges will also automatically convert all SYS1 to SYS2. We are working with exchanges to help them through this process. The conversion will operate on a simple ratio; 1 SYS2 per every 299.4 SYS1. The fork will also switch Syscoin from a Scrypt algorithm that is merge-mineable with Litecoin to a SHA-256 algorithm which is merge-mineable with Bitcoin (larger network, more security and stability). This gives our network much more bandwidth and scalability into the future.
More information at: http://syscoin.org/syscoin-2-0-february-interim-update/
submitted by Keyare to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Will people who trade cryptocurrencies be given 1030(like-kind exchange treatment) from the IRS?

http://www.irs.gov/uac/Like-Kind-Exchanges-Under-IRC-Code-Section-1031
This part makes me think no. However, cryptocurrencies aren't stocks or bonds.
Finally, certain types of property are specifically excluded from Section 1031 treatment. Section 1031 does not apply to exchanges of: Inventory or stock in trade Stocks, bonds, or notes Other securities or debt Partnership interests Certificates of trust
One interesting note is that the IRS only gave out tax guidance on Bitcoins and virtual currencies 2 weeks before April 15th. Also, FinCen has declared Bitcoins as currency while the IRS classifies them as assets. If I go to Canada and exchange my dollars for loonies and the loonies appreciate in value, do i pay taxes on the gains i make when i exchange them back for dollars? Because of these issues, do you think cryptocurreny traders will be given some kind of waiver or tax refund?
EDIT: Here's another interesting source of information on the matter: http://www.1031services.com/articles/JPTE%20Precious%20Metals%20and%20Collect.pdf
In 1982, the IRS declared gold and silver as not like-kind because gold is used as a collectoinvestment commodity and silver is used for industrial purposes. Compare this to cryptocurrencies where most altcoins are essentially copycats of Bitcoin. Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Peercoin and many others are all written in C++ with decentralized blockchain technology and are secured by cryptographic hashing algorithms( i.e. SHA-256, SHA-256D, & Scrypt). All are explicitly used to transmit value on the internet by design and developer intention. Therefor, cryptocurrencies should receive like-kind exchange treatment if the IRS is to logically consistent.
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